Kumar et al.  noted that AL amyloidosis patients had a worse survival if there was no intact monoclonal immunoglobulin detectable (12.6 months vs 29.3 months, p=0.02). The patients without monoclonal heavy chain had a higher dFLC value (255 vs 153 mg/L, p<0.001) but on multivariate analysis both dFLC and the presence/absence of heavy chain were independently prognostic for survival. Kumar et al.  also reported that AL amyloidosis patients with high sFLC burden (dFLC >196 mg/L), had more frequent and severe cardiac involvement, with higher levels of cardiac biomarkers troponin T (cTnT) and pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) . However, in a multivariate analysis that included a variety of markers, baseline dFLC remained an independent predictor of survival. In a subsequent publication from the same centre , a revised staging system for AL amyloidosis was proposed incorporating dFLC alongside the cardiac biomarkers cTnT and NT-ProBNP. Patients were assigned a score of 1 for each of the following: 1) dFLC ≥180 mg/L; 2) cTnT ≥0.025 ng/mL or, 3) NT-ProBNP ≥1800pg/mL, to give stages I to IV (for 0 - 3 points, respectively). The staging system was derived from 810 patients with newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis and tested on two further populations (n=303 and n=103). The authors concluded that this revised Mayo staging system (based on sFLC measurements and cardiac biomarkers) allowed better discrimination of patient outcomes in AL amyloidosis than a staging system based on cardiac biomarkers alone, and should be incorporated into future clinical trials .
Wassef et al.  used the above staging system when comparing sFLC results produced by Freelite with another manufacturer's monoclonal antibody-based FLC assays. The quantitative results and stage allocation differed for the two immunoassays, indicating that the staging system cannot be extended to different assays without separate validation (Chapter 8).